Construction Dump Truck
Dump trucks are also known as production trucks and are used for transporting loose materials such as sand and dirt or gravel for construction. Construction dump trucks are usually equipped with a hydraulically operated open box which is hinged at the rear, allowing it to dump the load at the site of delivery. Construction dump trucks come in many variations for different tasks in construction. This guide to dump trucks will help you know about the different types available, and their unique features. They come equipped with a load of complex machinery designed to fulfil different tasks in construction. Popular construction dump truck manufacturers include; Mack, Peterbilt, Volvo, Freight liner, CAT, Kenworth, and International Trucks.
Types of Dump Trucks in construction
Standard dump truck
It has a standard chassis or base frame with a mounted bed. The standard dump truck also features a hydraulic ram that raises the bed. The rear of the bed is hinged to the back of the truck to enable the front to be raised to dump out material. The body is accessible through a tailgate that swings up and down, depending on the truck’s build. A key distinguishing feature is that its wheelbase tends to be low to improve manoeuvrability which is very essential. They also feature front and rear turning axles for trucks that carry greater loads. They are popular in the United States of America and Europe.
Transfer (Truck and Transfer)
A transfer dump truck has a standard dump truck as its base pulling a separate mobile cargo container on a trailer. The separate trailer is then towed by the body of the main truck. One key feature of the transfer dump truck is that it can carry a variety of common construction materials, giving the truck an increased capacity without sacrificing manoeuvrability. It is used to carry the following materials; gravel, sand, asphalt, snow, wood chips, construction aggregate, dirt.
End Dump truck (Dump trailer, Semi end dump truck)
This dump truck features a tractor-trailer combination that has a hydraulic system. Loads are weighted more on the container being pulled, than the truck bed. While the end dump truck can carry a huge payload, it is unstable. This limits its application, especially at the uneven ground at job sites. The truck is easy to unload on site.
Side Dump Truck The side dump truck is made up of a tractor pulling a semi-trailer. Hydraulic rams tilt the body onto its side, to make the material move either to the right or to the left of the truck. It allows rapid unloading and won’t tip over like an end dump can unless the dump is stopped early. These construction dump trucks can carry almost anything, from boulders to sand, to sludge. They have few limitations. Side dump trucks also have an additional carrying capacity.
Tri-Axle dump truck
It is used for smaller loads, over short distances. It is a very popular choice in more urban and suburban areas due to its manoeuvrability in tight spaces, or along busy city streets, while carrying a decent load capacity. They are lightweight and very cost-effective. It can’t carry a wide variety of loads, however, as it has a relatively small carrying capacity.
Super Dump truck
It has a trailing axle and load-bearing axle allowing for much heavier loads than most dump truck types, while still meeting the federal bridge formula standard. They are popular out west in the United States. It can achieve ratings of up to 80000 pounds depending on the length and axle configuration. It is useful in asphalt and concrete paving.
The bottom dump, also known as the belly dump have dump trailers with a clamshell gate that releases material from the bottom of the belly of the trailer. The clamshell design provides precision when laying materials. The bottom dump is mostly used for stockpiling, material transport and paving.
Double Bottom (Double Belly Dump)
The double bottom or Double Belly is similar to the bottom dump but has an additional extra trailer to increase the capacity that can be carried per trip.
Off-Highway Dump Trucks
These trucks are heavy construction equipment used for off-road jobs like mining and heavy dirt hauling. They differ from the standard and other dump trucks and manufacturers refrain from calling them to dump trucks. They are commonly known as haul trucks instead. There are two main types of off-highway dump trucks and articulated hauliers. They are massive in size and are ideal for digging out roads as well.
Double and Triple trailers
The double and triple trailer bottom dump trucks have a 2 axle tractor pulling a semi-trailer and an additional trailer. These dump truck types allow the driver to lay materials in wind rows without the driver having to step out of the cab, or stop the truck. It is a very difficult truck to reverse.
Semi-trailer end dump truck
It is a tractor-trailer combination in which the hydraulic hoist is found within the trailer itself. The average semi end dump truck has a 3 axle. It typically has a 3 axle trailer that pulls a 2 axle semi-trailer. Its main advantage is that it enables rapid unloading.
Semi Trailer bottom dump truck
This type of dump truck is a 3 axle tractor that pulls a 2 axle trailer that has a clamshell type dump gate in the belly of the trailer. It can lay material in a windrow and is manoeuvrable in reverse, unlike the double and triple trailer configurations.